EUROPRICE, Budapest Case Study

 
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Modelling base:

Within the framework of EUROPRICE project various charging experiments and modelling calculations have been executed in London, Dublin, Athens and Budapest.
In case of Budapest with the application of the sensitive demand-models (trip generation, distribution and modal split model) and assigning methods of the TRANSURS model system based on the data of the 1994 household survey, the analysis of various (access) charging scenarios have been made possible. One of the scenarios is shown in the following figure.
 
The introduction of access fees brought change in the generalised costs, what influenced the trip rates, the destination distribution and the modal shares of the participants of transport and further the routes of the car drivers (the trucks are prohibited from the inner part of the city).
 
The assumed cordon fee is relatively high, it equals to 4 public transport tickets (price in 1995: HUF 25/ticket), in case of bridge tolls on the Danube bridges in the inner districts of Budapest a fee of an additional 2 units has been assumed.
 
On the basis of the generalised transport costs (time, fuel, service conditions + entry fee) the results of the logit-based calculations for destination and mode choice in respect of the over 70 passenger groups and trip purpose groups are shown in the graphs and the loading difference map.

 

Scheme and results of road pricing in Budapest

 

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The main findings were:

 
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The departing and destination traffic in the direction of the inner areas would decrease by approximately 4% all in all (in the calculations the differentiation between the inhabitants of these areas and the other passengers was not possible).

 

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The proportion of the transport modes would change as follows: private cars -40%, public transport +8%, bicycles +3%, pedestrians +2%.
 
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Compared to the basic option the different modes in the inner districts of Budapest as well as in the whole city would change as follows: destination traffic of private cars (-42/-4%) traffic performance (-48/0%), time spent in the traffic (-65/+1%), used fuel (-54/-1%) emitted nitrogen-oxide (NOx) (-31/+3%) – decrease (-), increase (+).
 
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The traffic loads of the network in the inner areas and on the bridges would considerably decrease; part of the ‘edged off’ excess traffic would appear on Lágymányosi bridge and Árpád bridge, where this traffic would still cause less additional external costs than in the inner districts.
 
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The annual farebox revenue – which is not an unimportant aspect – would be HUF 7 billion/year (in case of 1995 prices).

 

In the course of theoretical modelling we did not deal with the technology of fee collection, investment demands and operational costs. Savings would decrease in case of the beneficence of the inhabitants of the given area, but the consideration of this was not possible due to the given framework and conditions.